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鲜切农产品贮藏和包装保鲜技术的最新进展


来源: Pramod V Mahajan et al  发布日期: 2021-09-07  访问量: 40


新鲜水果和蔬菜(F&V)在全世界每年损失或浪费的食物总量中占最高比例,即44%(按质量计)(Lipinski等,2013;Porat等,2018)。在这些损失中,采后的损失最为严重,因为采后阶段的损失意味着在之前的农业、收获前和收获阶段投入的所有能源和资本也被损失。此外,水果和蔬菜是易腐烂的产品;这大大增加了保持采后质量和减少园艺业损失的挑战。尽管温度是新鲜产品贮藏和运输中最重要的参数,但其他包装和贮藏技术也非常重要(Wills等人,2007;Mahajan等人,2014)。本评论提供了用于保鲜水果和蔬菜的包装和贮藏技术的最新进展。...
标签: 农产品、贮藏保鲜、包装、呼吸商、DCA-RQ
 

Recent Advances on Packaging and Storage Technologies for the Preservation of Fresh Produce

鲜切农产品贮藏和包装保鲜技术的最新进展
Pramod V Mahajan, Namrata Pathak, Graziele G Bovi, Makgafele Lucia Ntsoane, Ali Jalali, Nandita Keshri, Guido Rux,
Ulrike Praeger, and Martin Geyer

Department of Horticultural Engineering, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and
Bioeconomy (ATB), Potsdam, Germany
© 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Introduction
Fresh fruits and vegetables (F&V) constitute the highest percentage, 44% (by mass), of the total food lost or wasted per year worldwide (Lipinski et al., 2013; Porat et al., 2018). Among these losses, postharvest losses are most severe as a loss at the postharvest stage implies that all the energy and capital invested in the prior stages of agriculture, pre-harvest and harvest is also lost. Additionally, F&V are perishable products; this greatly increases the challenge of maintaining postharvest quality and reducing losses for the horticultural industry. Although temperature is the most important parameter in storage and transport of fresh produce, other packaging and storage technologies are also of high importance (Wills et al., 2007; Mahajan et al., 2014). This review provides recent advances on packaging and storage technologies for the preservation of fresh fruit and vegetables.

新鲜水果和蔬菜(F&V)在全世界每年损失或浪费的食物总量中占最高比例,即44%(按质量计)(Lipinski等,2013;Porat等,2018)。在这些损失中,采后的损失最为严重,因为采后阶段的损失意味着在之前的农业、收获前和收获阶段投入的所有能源和资本也被损失。此外,水果和蔬菜是易腐烂的产品;这大大增加了保持采后质量和减少园艺业损失的挑战。尽管温度是新鲜产品贮藏和运输中最重要的参数,但其他包装和贮藏技术也非常重要(Wills等人,2007;Mahajan等人,2014)。本评论提供了用于保鲜水果和蔬菜的包装和贮藏技术的最新进展。

DCA Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurement
Chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) is now a well-known technique to monitor post-harvest stresses of fresh produce (DeEll et al., 1999). DCA-CF technology works by finding a link between the minimum fluorescence and a metabolic shift from predominantly aerobic to fermentative metabolism, i.e., finding LOL of the stored fresh produce (Table 4). Research by Prange et al. (2002) showed the effect of lowering O2 concentration on chlorophyll fluorescence of apples stored inside a CA chamber and found out that measurement of CF can rapidly and non-destructively determine the lowest acceptable O2 concentration/low oxygen limit (LOL) for stored fresh produce. Prange et al. (2003) commented on commercial application of measurement of CF as an indicator of low oxygen limit (LOL) and that it may be used to bring a change in CA storage conditions non-destructively. HarvestWatch (Satlantic L.P., Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada) was the first to have commercialized DCA based on CF measurement (DeLong et al., 2004). DCA-CF has shown great potential in prevention of superficial scald (DeLong et al., 2004, 2006; Zanella et al., 2004; Zanella and Stürz, 2012), however one disadvantage of the technology is that fresh produce shows difference in CF activities between Sun exposed side and non-Sun exposed side. In general, fruit tend to have higher metabolic activities on the Sun exposed side (Wright et al., 2012). Therefore, the CF measured on the side exposed to Sun might result in a higher value of LOL (Prange et al., 2007). The result might be underestimation/incorrect estimation of the LOL, if fruit was exposed to the shaded side of the tree. Such factors are natural and therefore unavoidable.

叶绿素荧光(CF)现在是监测新鲜农产品采后压力的一项著名技术(DeEll等人,1999年)。DCA-CF技术的工作原理是找到最小荧光和代谢从以有氧代谢为主转向发酵代谢之间的联系,即找到储存的新鲜产品的LOL(表4)。Prange等人(2002)的研究显示了降低O2浓度对储存在CA室内的苹果的叶绿素荧光的影响,并发现CF的测量可以快速和无损地确定储存的新鲜产品的最低可接受的O2浓度/低氧极限(LOL)。Prange等人(2003)评论了测量CF作为低氧极限(LOL)指标的商业应用,它可以被用来非破坏性地改变CA储存条件。HarvestWatch (Satlantic L.P., Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada) 是第一个将基于CF测量的DCA商业化的公司(DeLong等人,2004)。DCA-CF在预防表面烫伤方面显示出巨大的潜力(DeLong等人,2004,2006;Zanella等人,2004;Zanella和Stürz,2012),然而该技术的一个缺点是,新鲜产品在阳光照射和非阳光照射的一侧显示出CF活动的差异。一般来说,水果在阳光照射的一侧往往有更高的代谢活动(Wright等人,2012)。因此,在暴露在阳光下的一侧测量的CF可能会导致更高的LOL值(Prange等人,2007)。如果果实暴露在树的阴面,其结果可能是对LOL的低估/错误的估计。这些因素是自然的,因此是不可避免的。
 

DCA Based on Respiratory Quotient Measurement
An alternative to these methods is respiratory quotient (RQ) measurements of the stored produce that can be used as a stress signal to adapt oxygen levels (Blanpied and Jozwiak, 1993). RQ is the ratio of amount of CO2 produced to the amount of O2 consumed by stored fresh produce. Monitoring the RQ identifies the moment when a critical level of ethanol production by stored produce is reached, which might damage their tissue (Gabioud et al., 2009). Weber et al. (2015) developed an innovative method to monitor quality of ‘Royal gala’ apples stored inside a DCA chamber based on RQ. The developed system tested at different RQ values found to be comparable with commercialized DCA-CF and better than CA technology in terms of reduction in physiological disorders in Royal gala apples (Table 4). Bessemans et al. (2016) also developed a novel type of DCA system based on measurements of the stored fruit RQ. The developed system used RQ to control O2 and CO2 partial pressures inside storage containers for apple fruit automatically. Delele et al. (2013) patented a DCA technology in which changes in gas composition is carried out as a function of gas exchange rate quotient GERQ to adjust the gas exchange dynamics of the storage system. One disadvantage of such system is the requirement of complete tightness of the CA storage room which in this case was calculated on the basis of a mathematical model (Bessemans et al., 2018). Complete gas tightness of a commercial CA cell is not ideal and its prediction based on the mathematical model can be subject to errors. Schaefer and Bishop (2014) also patented a technology to dynamically maintain the CA room at the lowest possible O2 level that will maintain normal respiration in the stored commodities. Such dynamic changes in O2 levels were based on the measured RQ of the stored fresh produce. One disadvantage of the system is that it uses water sealing to make the chamber gastight which can cause an increase in humidity inside the chamber, however, choosing an alternate sealing can be an option in such type of system. Brackmann (2015) patented an apparatus for storing fresh produce by determining their RQ inside DCA cells. Such system used RQ to adjust the level of O2 inside the cell so as to induce a controlled anaerobic respiration with slight production of ethanol. Initiation of slight anaerobic respiration and production of ethanol as an indicator of fruit ripening can be a goodmethod in lab environment; however, application of the same in commercial environment may not be due to late realization of anaerobic respiration. Veltman (2015) patented a DCA technology that comprises of directly detecting the respiration of the agricultural or horticultural products and adjusting an O2, a CO2 and/or N2 content in the space subject to the detected respiration. Respiration ratemeasurement in such system is based on RQ measurement and thereby bringing the change in gas composition dynamically. A disadvantage of such system is that it requires an almost complete seal of the CA cell and also disconnection from the refrigeration system and from the gas control system of the CA cell for 4 hours when determining the RQ.

这些方法的一个替代方法是对贮藏的农产品进行呼吸商(RQ)测量,可作为适应氧气水平的压力信号(Blanpied and Jozwiak, 1993)。RQ是贮藏的新鲜产品产生的CO2量与消耗的O2量的比率。监测RQ可以确定贮藏的农产品达到乙醇生产的关键水平的时刻,这可能会损害它们的组织(Gabioud等人,2009)。Weber等人(2015年)开发了一种创新方法,根据RQ监测贮藏在DCA室内的 "Royal gala "苹果的质量。所开发的系统在不同的RQ值下测试,发现与商业化的DCA-CF相当,在减少皇家嘎拉苹果的生理紊乱方面优于CA技术(表4)。Bessemans等人(2016年)也开发了一种基于测量贮藏水果RQ的新型DCA系统。开发的系统利用RQ自动控制苹果果实储存容器内的O2和CO2分压。Delele等人(2013年)申请了一项DCA技术的专利,其中气体成分的变化是作为气体交换率GERQ的函数来调整贮藏系统的气体交换动态的。这种系统的一个缺点是要求CA储存室的完全密封性,在这种情况下,是根据数学模型计算出来的(Bessemans等人,2018)。商业CA完全气密性并不理想,基于数学模型的预测可能会有误差。Schaefer和Bishop(2014年)还申请了一项技术专利,将CA室动态地维持在最低的O2水平,以保持储存商品的正常呼吸。这种O2水平的动态变化是基于贮藏的新鲜农产品的测量RQ。该系统的一个缺点是,它使用水密封来使室的气密性,这可能导致室内湿度的增加,然而,在这种类型的系统中,选择替代的密封可以是一种选择。Brackmann(2015)为一种通过确定DCA的RQ来贮藏新鲜产品的设备申请了专利。这种系统使用RQ来调整细胞内的氧气水平,以诱导有控制的厌氧呼吸,并产生少量的乙醇。启动轻微的无氧呼吸并产生乙醇作为水果成熟的指标,在实验室环境中是一个很好的方法;然而,在商业环境中应用同样的方法可能会因为无氧呼吸的实现较晚而无法实现。Veltman(2015)申请了一项DCA技术的专利,该技术包括直接检测农业或园艺产品的呼吸,并调整被检测到的呼吸空间中的氧气、二氧化碳和/或氮气含量。这种系统中的呼吸速率测量是基于RQ测量,从而动态地带来气体成分的变化。这种系统的缺点是,在确定RQ时,它需要几乎完全密封CA单元,并与制冷系统和CA单元的气体控制系统断开4个小时的连接。

      DCA storage technology as a combination of low O2 and careful monitoring of fruit physiological stress offers an effective, dynamic way to keep mostly apples and pears in good condition for longer storage time. As compared to well-known storage methods such as static CA system or application of chemicals (1-MCP), DCA technology has shown potentials of reducing common diseases such as superficial scald in apples and pears without application of chemicals. Demand for such non-chemical storage technologies shows a great potential of DCA not only in developed countries but also in developing countries and will keep on increasing. DCA has shown great potential, however realization and application of some DCA systems such as DCA-RQ could be difficult in commercial situations due to non-idealistic conditions. The technology is however relatively new and will keep on updating. More and more research is being done in the same area not just with lab models but also in area of commercialization of the technology. High cost of the technology can be one of the disadvantages of the technology, maintenance of very low O2 level being other. Such technology of course demands a very good control and maintenance system, which in turn results in higher cost of the technology. Also, storage with such low O2 concentration always has a potential risk of anaerobic fermentation. Overall, from the literature data, DCA technology works well in monitoring the stress level of fresh produce in real-time and non-destructively to maximize fresh produce potential while maintaining it sound and marketable.

DCA贮藏技术作为低氧和细化监测水果生理压力的组合,提供了一种有效的、动态的方法,使大部分苹果和梨子在较长的贮藏时间内保持良好的状态。与众所周知的贮藏方法如静态CA系统或应用化学品(1-MCP)相比,DCA技术已显示出在不应用化学品的情况下减少苹果和梨的常见疾病如表面烫伤的潜力。对这种非化学储存技术的需求表明,DCA不仅在发达国家,而且在发展中国家都有很大的潜力,并将继续增加。DCA已经显示出巨大的潜力,然而,由于非理想的条件,一些DCA系统(如DCA-RQ)的实现和应用在商业情况下可能是困难的。然而,该技术是相对较新的,并将不断地更新。在同一领域,越来越多的研究正在进行,不仅是实验室模型,而且还有技术的商业化领域。该技术的高成本可能是该技术的缺点之一,维持极低的氧气水平是另一个缺点。这种技术当然需要一个非常好的控制和维护系统,这反过来又导致了技术的高成本。此外,在如此低的氧气浓度下储存总是有厌氧发酵的潜在风险。总的来说,从文献数据来看,DCA技术在实时和非破坏性地监测新鲜产品的压力水平方面效果很好,可以最大限度地发挥新鲜产品的潜力,同时保持其健全和可销售。

Future Perspectives
• Less complex packaging design, so as to use the minimum possible amount of packaging material that just fulfills needs of fruit and vegetables.
• Mathematical modeling, to predict the remaining shelf-life using easy to measure parameters such as temperature and relative humidity in the supply chain.
• Refrigeration and cooling, adoption and implementation of existing low cost cooling systems for on-farm cooling and storage of fresh produce.
• Dynamic controlled atmosphere storage, need to develop system for in situ real-time monitoring of respiratory activity and low oxygen stress during long-term storage of fruits.
• Ethylene control, using catalyst or ozone showed encouraging results but further efforts are needed to understand the reaction mechanism and impact on fruit quality during long-term storage.

- 减少复杂的包装设计,以便使用尽可能少的包装材料,满足水果和蔬菜的需要。
- 建立数学模型,利用容易测量的参数,如供应链中的温度和相对湿度,来预测剩余的保质期。
- 制冷和冷却,采用和实施现有的低成本冷却系统,在农场内冷却和贮藏新鲜产品。
- 需要开发动态气调贮藏系统,在水果的长期贮藏程中对呼吸活动和低氧压力进行现场实时监测。
- 乙烯控制,使用催化剂或臭氧显示出令人鼓舞的结果,但还需要进一步努力了解反应机制和对长期贮藏期间水果质量的影响。


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